By Molly Theobald
This post is part of a series where Nourishing the Planet asks its readers: What works? Every week we’ll ask the question and every week you can join the conversation!
Throughout the Sahel, recurrent drought, deforestation, and over-farming, is turning once lush farm land into desert. And when the sand starts spreading, it can be difficult to stop. Picked up by the wind, dust and sand travels vast distances to cover villages, roads, crops, and irrigation systems, making it increasingly difficult to farm and maintain infrastructure.
Farmers are especially impacted by desertification. Dry, cracked and depleted soils make for poor harvests, while sand covered roads make it nearly impossible to transport crops to the market. Yet, farmers are also the people who hold some of the best tools with which to put a stop to the spreading sands.
In Mauritania, for example, where moving sand dunes cover two-thirds of the country’s land area, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), partnered with the government of Mauritania to help protect the country’s towns and cities. Between 2000 and 2007, a series of fences were designed to use wind to create artificial dunes surrounding Nouakchott, the country’s capital. These dunes reduced the strength of the wind and slowed the advancement of more sand. Set at a 120 to 140 degree angle, deflection fences were also erected in order to redirect the incoming winds and sands, further reducing sand build up. Both fences are made from branches and twigs that were collected from mature forests.
Once the dunes have been halted with hand-woven fences, the process of creating long-term barriers begins. Although dunes are perhaps the least hospitable environment upon which to grow trees and other vegetation, walls of mature plant growth also provide one of the most effective barriers for sand. Depending on the climate and soil conditions, drought-tolerant and indigenous tree species are selected and planted to act as barriers.
A similar strategy is being utilized elsewhere in the Sahel. In Burkina Faso and Niger, farmers are restoring the Sahel’s degraded land with a farming technique called Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR). By pruning shoots that periodically and naturally sprout from below-ground root webs, farmers can promote forest growth and take advantage of a naturally occurring source of fuel, food, or animal fodder. The trees also produce fruit rich in nutrients and help to restore the soil by releasing nitrogen and protecting the ground from erosion by wind and rain. The practice also cuts down on deforestation as the trees that are used for fuel are replaced with seedlings and tended by farmers, further holding down and regenerating the soil.
And in Burkina Faso, farmers are reviving an old farming technique called zaï—planting pits dug through the hard, barren crust—to help the soil retain water and support crops even during extensive dry periods. And with support from Oxfam America, farmers in the area are using stone bunds that slow runoff, ensuring that water trickles into the soil and is completely absorbed.
Now it’s your turn: do you know about other tools that farmers might have in their hands in order to help stop spreading sands, halt desertification, and repair degraded lands? Tell us in the comments and maybe your innovation will appear in future editions of What Works!
Molly Theobald is a research fellow with the Nourishing the Planet project.
- What works: Increasing Food Sovereignty
- Innovation of the Week: Putting a Stop to the Spreading Sands
- Innovation of the Week: Banking on the Harvest
- The Potential of Perennial Grain: Increasing Production, Reducing Labor, and Restoring Degraded Land
- What Works: Improving Water Efficiency
- What Works: Feeding Cities
- What Works: Farmers Adapting to Climate Change
- What Works: Improving Health with Agriculture